Orton Standard Dilatometers

Thermal Dilatometric Analysis (TDA), often called "dilatometry", measures the dimensional change of a material (ceramics, glasses, metals, composites, carbon/graphite, minerals, polymers, and others) as a function of temperature. This test determines both reversible and irreversible changes in length (expansion and shrinkage) during heating and cooling, and pinpoints where reactions occur that cause expansion or contraction. The dilatometer is used to determine Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE), softening point, glass transition temperature, curie point, crystalline transformation, phase transition, shrinkage, warping, bloating, sintering rate, isothermal creep, and stress relaxation. Samples are quickly and easily measured for determining firing ranges and firing schedules, measuring thermal expansion ranges for glaze fits, and measuring thermal expansion ranges for R&D, QC or product certification.

  

Standard, Single Sample, Horizontal Dilatometers

 

Model
DIL 2010 STD
DIL 2012 STD
DIL 2016 STD
DIL 2010 C
DIL 2010 B
.
THUMB-Model-DIL-2010-STD.jpg
THUMB-Model-DIL-2012-STD.jpg
THUMB-Model-DIL-2016-STD.jpg
THUMB-DIL-2010-C.jpg
THUMB-Model-DIL-2010-B.jpg
Temperature Range RT to 1,000°C RT to 1,200°C RT to 1,600°C RT to 1,000°C or
-170°C to +500°C
RT to 1,000°C
Furnace Kanthal Wire Kanthal Wire Silicon Carbide Nichrome Wire or
Cryogenic Chamber
Kanthal Wire
Isothermal Zone for a 1" Sample ±1.5 ±1.5°C ±1.5°C ±2.5°C
Thermocouple Type "S" Type "S" Type "S" Type "N" Type "N"
Sample Holder and Probe Rod Standard: Fused Quartz Standard: High Alumina
Optional: Fused Quartz
Standard: High Alumina
Optional: Fused Quartz
Standard: Fused Quartz Standard: Fused Quartz
Sample Size (maximum) 50 mm long by
20 mm diameter
50 mm long by
20 mm diameter
50 mm long by
20 mm diameter
50 mm long by
10 mm diameter
50 mm long by
20 mm diameter
LVDT Linear Range ±0.100 inch or ±100 μ-inches or ±100,000 nano-inches (±2.54 mm or ±2,540 μm or ±2,540,000 nm)
LVDT Resolution Infinite - <0.1 nanometer
Practical Resolution 0.0000009 inch or 0.0009 micro-inch or 0.9 nano-inch ( 0.000022 mm or 0.022 μm or 22.8 nm)
Practical PLC Resolution
(for a 1" Sample)
0.00009%
Reproducibility Limited by sample preparation and ability to reproduce testing conditions
Practical Reproducibility Range ± 0.004 PLC
(± 1 μm / ± 40 μ-inches)
± 0.008 PLC
(± 2 μm / ± 80 μ-inches)
± 0.008 PLC
(± 2 μm / ± 80 μ-inches)
± 0.004 PLC
(± 1 μm / ± 40 μ-inches)
± 0.008 PLC
(± 2 μm / ± 80 μ-inches)
Contact Load Adjustable
4 to 100 grams (or more)
Adjustable
4 to 100 grams (or more)
Adjustable
4 to 100 grams (or more)
Adjustable
4 to 100 grams (or more)
Fixed - 113 grams
(approximately)
Temperature Control Orton Controller Board: PID control, User Programmable, 20-segment maximum, and Automatic Melting Point Protection
Controller Heating Rates Heating Rates from 0.1 to 999°C/minute at 0.1°C/minute increments
Furnace Heating Rates 0.1°C/minute to 120°C/minute 0.1°C/minute to 120°C/minute 0.1°C/minute to 185°C/minute
(average 50°C/minute)
0.1°C/minute to 10°C/minute 0.1°C/minute to 12°C/minute
Contact Load Adjustable
4 to 100 grams (or more)
Adjustable
4 to 100 grams (or more)
Adjustable
4 to 100 grams (or more)
Adjustable
4 to 100 grams (or more)
Fixed - 113 grams
Data Acquisition Data stored in Orton Controller Board at 1°C increments. Data can be downloaded manually or via PC Software. Data saved until next run.
Data Analysis Orton Dilatometer Software Version 5.2.1 is included. 1
Computer Interface RS232 Cable included - User can attached USB converter to RS232 cable 1
Factory Calibration All systems are calibrated with 1" rod of high purity platinum. The Cryogenic system is calibrated with a platinum rod and a copper rod.
Calibration with a 2" rod is available upon request.
Secondary Calibration Sample All systems are shipped a 1" rod of 99.8% high purity, polycrystalline high alumina. A 2" rod can be substituted upon request.
Calibration Sample Platinum Rod is available as an Option Platinum Rod is available as an Option Platinum Rod is available as an Option 1" copper standard is included. Platinum Rod is available as an Option Platinum Rod is available as an Option
Water Cooled Bulkhead
(circulation system not included)
Included Included Included Included Not Available
Measuring Head Cover Available as Option
(included with a controlled atmosphere option)
Available as Option
(included with a controlled atmosphere option)
Available as Option
(included with a controlled atmosphere option)
Included Not Available
Controlled Inert Atmosphere Available as an option Not Available
Controlled Reactive Atmosphere Available as an option Not Available
Bench-top Footprint (open)
Length x Depth x Height
49" x 14" x 17"
(1,250 x 360 x 430 mm)
49" x 14" x 17"
(1,250 x 360 x 430 mm)
49" x 14" x 17"
(1,250 x 360 x 430 mm)
49" x 14" x 24"
(1,250 x 360 x 600 mm)
28" x 14" x 15"
(710 x 360 x 380 mm)
Transformer Footprint Transformer not Required Transformer not Required 14.5" x 9.25" x 9.62"
(365 x 230 x 245 mm)
Transformer not Required Transformer not Required
Power Requirements 240 VAC, 20 A, 50/60 Hz 240 VAC, 20 A, 50/60 Hz 240 VAC, 20 A, 50/60 Hz 240 VAC, 20 A, 50/60 Hz
(120 VAC available)
240 VAC, 20 A, 50/60 Hz
(120 VAC available)

Descriptions and specifications contained in this table are typical values. Descriptions and specifications are subject to change without notice. Please contact to orton for a thorough discussion of the current descriptions, specifications, operation, maintenance, and performance for the dilatometer most appropriate for your application.

1(Requires English Language Version of Windows 95/98/2000/XP)

 

Computer Analysis

Every Orton dilatometer is supplied with the software to add to the user's PC in order to acquire, save and analyze the data generated by the dilatometer. The Orton Dilatometer Software is written for Windows 95/98/2000/XP/Vista English language based personal computers. It can be used to monitor the dilatometer test in real time, or can be used to examine the test data after the run. The software imports the data through the RS232 interface (USB interface is available), and stores it on the hard drive for immediate or post-testing analysis. The software enables the user to:

View the dilatometer data in a variety of presentations:

• Percent linear change (PLC) vs. temperature
• Percent linear change (PLC) vs. time
• First derivative of the percent linear change (DCE) vs. temperature
• First derivative of the percent linear change (DCE) vs. time
• Percent linear change (PLC) and first derivative of the percent linear change (DCE) vs. temperature
• Percent linear change (PLC) and first derivative of the percent linear change (DCE) vs. time

Software-ScreenSmall.jpg

Perform a variety of analyses:

• Calculate the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between specified temperatures, or a series of specified temperatures
• Calculate the average coefficient of thermal expansion from room temperature to a specified temperature at a specified temperature increment
• Determine glass transition temperature (for ceramic glasses with TG's between 400°C and 850°C)
• Determine softening temperature
• Locate alpha-beta quartz transition
• Export the data in a text file format for independent analysis or archiving purposes

 

Principle of Operation

THUMB-TDA-Concept.jpg

The sketch above shows the concepts of a dilatometer. A sample specimen is placed between the end of the sample holder and the end of the movable probe rod, and the furnace is heated according to a pre-programmed thermal cycle. As the sample temperature changes (as recorded by the sample thermocouple), the sample expands (pushing against the probe rod) or shrinks (pulling away from the probe rod). The probe rod transmits the amount of sample movement to an electronic displacement sensor located outside of the heated chamber. The displacement sensor generates an electronic signal corresponding to the positive or negative change in sample length and continuously sends the signal to the computer. The computer converts the signal to the percent of length change (%DL) and saves it along with the elapsed time and the sample temperature. The basic TDA curve is generated by plotting the percent of length change (%DL) on the Y-axis against the sample temperature.

 

Horizontal Dilatometer

TDA-SystemLabeled.jpg TDA-SampleHolder.jpg

The photos above are a horizontal dilatometer with the furnace moved away to expose the sample holder, and a close-up view of the sample holder. The photo on the right shows how the sample is positioned between the end of the sample holder and the probe rod. After positioning the sample in the sample holder, the furnace is moved horizontally to surround the sample and sample holder.

The probe rod extends from the end of the sample, throught the sample holder tube, and connects to the displacement sensor assembly outside the furnace. The probe rod is spring loaded outside the furnace to keep it in constant contact with the sample, even when shrinking.

The main advantage of the horizontal system is the uniform temperature zone for the sample. Most dilatometer tests are performed with a horizontal unit.

 

 

Vertical Dilatometer

For larger samples, such as refractories and structural clay bodies, a vertical dilatometer is used. The sample is placed into the furnace and the vertical probe rod is lowered to contact the sample (as shown in the photo at the right). The furnace is heated according to the pre-programmed thermal cycle. As the sample temperature changes, the sample expands, pushing up on the probe rod, or shrinks, pulling away from the probe rod. The probe rod is vertically suspended and counterweighted so that gravity keeps it in constant contact with the sample. The probe rod transmits the amount of sample movement to the electronic displacement sensor located overhead and outside the furnace.

THUMB-TDA-VertSample.jpg

Orton also designs and manufactures other types of non-standard dilatometers, including vertical, multiple sample, metallurgical, quenching, laser, and special application systems.

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